珠海仓库货架定制---大型仓储式卖场的安全疏散如何设计?(一)

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With the rapid development of the modern economy, some large-scale warehouse-style stores have been built all over the country. With a wide variety of goods and low commodity prices, they are popular among the general public. Compared with general shopping malls, warehouse-style hypermarkets are mostly Single or second floor, with closed type, large area, large volume, and uniform store and store. Due to the high concentration of personnel in the store and the concentration of goods, once a fire accident occurs, the burning speed is very fast and the fire temperature is high. It is easy to form three-dimensional combustion, and it is difficult for people to evacuate, which will cause serious property damage and casualties. Therefore, the safe evacuation design and management of such buildings is very important. So how do large warehouse stores make safe evacuation designs when customizing shelves?

1. Safe evacuation time

When conducting a safe evacuation design, the safe evacuation time should first be considered. The factors affecting the evacuation time mainly include the intensity of the personnel in the store, the type of goods, the conditions of the evacuation passage, the concentration and toxicity of the smoke at the time of the fire. In general, the greater the density of people, the slower and more difficult the evacuation. There are tens of thousands of varieties of warehouse-type stores, and there are a large number of combustible materials. In the event of a fire, a large amount of high-temperature smoke will be generated, which will have a great impact on people's evacuation. Therefore, the evacuation index should be strictly controlled for such buildings, and the evacuation time can be set to 5 min according to the relevant national fire protection technical specifications.

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2. Total number of safe evacuations

xx除了固定座位建筑物的人员负荷明显外,中国的消防技术规范还不清楚其他建筑物的人员数量。目前,商店建筑物的安全疏散设计主要基于《建筑设计防火规范》,《高层民用建筑设计防火规范》和《商店建筑设计规范》。《商店建筑设计规范》规定,商店建筑根据使用功能分为三个部分:商业,仓储和辅助。对于建筑面积超过15,000平方米的商店建筑,商业区,仓储区和辅助区分别占建筑面积的34%和34%。 32%。安全疏散的数量可以通过将业务区域和辅助区域的总和乘以转换因子(人/平方米)来确定。当它是一楼和二楼时,转换系数为0.85。以仓库式大型超市为例,建筑面积19000平方米,主体为单层,钢格结构,东西两侧的两层裙楼为办公区域,配有自动火灾报警器,自动喷水灭火系统和机械排烟系统。根据本规范,营商和辅助建筑的比例分别为0.34和0.32,面积总和为10 560平方米。转换系数为0.85,疏散总数为8,976,即9,000。然而,事实上,该建筑物已从讲台上拆除,建筑面积为11,000平方米,其中转运仓库和高架货架的营业面积约为5,000平方米,实际可用的营业面积是约9000平方米。根据上面的计算,平均占用面积为1平方米,仓库式大型超市的人员密度几乎每个人都推着购物车显然太大了。根据营业时间内超市人员的初步统计,该店的平均每日客流量约为2,400,最高峰值可达4500。虽然客流量不能等于安全疏散人员的数量,但可以看出,根据规格。计算的人数过多,实际情况很大。

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由于《商店建筑设计规范》的早期发展,近年来远未能适应商店建筑的快速发展。对于仓库商店,建筑形式和商业模式与传统意义上的完全不同。它不能简单地应用商店建筑设计规范。 Dingli Xiaobian认为可以采用以下两种方法。首先,要学习相关的国外技术规范。英国BS规则和美国UBC规则对不同建筑物的人员负荷,即人均占用面积有明确的规定。商店的人手负荷为2平方米/人。以上述商店为例,营业面积为9000平方米,疏散人员为4500人。值得注意的是,这里人员负荷所占的面积是指营业面积,也就是说,在设计时应明确计算商店式建筑物的实际可用营业面积,以及安全数量应计算疏散人员。其次,如果根据中国目前的防火设计规范进行疏散设计,可以引入缩减因子的概念。计算的总人数乘以0.5-0.7的缩减系数。以上述计算为例,9000人×(0.5-0.7)=4,500到6,300,这与第一种方法计算的数据接近。在中国2001年版《建筑设计防火规范》的修订版中,还明确说明了歌舞,娱乐,娱乐和放映场所的人员负担,但没有涉及其他形式的建筑物。这表明人员负荷的确定已引起有关部门的重视。我相信随着规范的进一步修订,这个问题将得到解决。